Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States in the 1970s. Its creators claim a relationship between neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns learned through experience ("programming") and that this can be changed to achieve certain goals in life. Bandler and Grinder claimed that the ability of ordinary people can "model" using the methodology of NLP skills can be acquired by anyone. Andler and Grinder also claimed. that NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic diseases, myopia, allergies, colds and learning disorders, often in a single session, has been adopted by a hypnotherapist and seminar marketed to business and government.
Review of empirical research shows that the NLP has failed to produce reliable results for its core teachings. Balance of scientific evidence reveals NLP be partially discredited pseudoscience. Scientific reviews show contains many factual errors, fails to produce an outcome confirmed by the supporters. According to clinical psychologist Devilly Grant (2005), NLP has declined consistently. prevalence since 1970. Criticism
beyond the lack of empirical evidence for the effectiveness of, say NLP
exhibits pseudoscientific characteristics, titles, concepts and
terminology as well. NLP
serves as an example of pseudoscience for facilitating the teaching of
scientific literacy at the professional and college levels. NLP also appears on peer reviewed expert-consensus-based list of discredited interventions. In a study designed to identify the "quack factor" in modern mental health practice,. Norcross et al. (2006) list NLP as possibly or probably discredited for the treatment of behavioral problems. Norcross et al. (2010) list NLP in the top ten most discredited interventions. and Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010) list therapy NLP as "certainly discredited".