Jumat, 21 Juni 2013

Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD is a foreign language teaching method derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In this class, students learn grammar rules and then apply the rules to translate sentences between the target language and their native language. Advanced students may be required to translate the entire text word for word. This method has two major goals: to enable students to read and interpret literature written in the target language, and general intellectual development of students for further '.

There are two main objectives for the class grammar-translation. One is to develop students' reading skills to a level where they can read the literature in the target language. The other is to develop common mental discipline students. Foreign language users want only to note the interesting things in the literature of a foreign language. Therefore, this method focuses on reading and writing and have developed techniques that facilitate more or less just learning to read and write. Consequently, speaking and listening ignored.

In learning activities typically performed using the local language students. Studied grammar rules deductively, students learn by memorizing grammar rules, and then practice with the rules of grammar exercises and translate sentences from and into the target language. More attention is given in the form of translated sentences rather than their content. When students reach a more advanced level of achievement, they may translate the entire text of the target language. Test often consists of translations of classical texts.
There is not usually any practice listening or talking, and very little attention is placed on pronunciation or communicative aspects of language. Skills do is read, and then only in the context of translation.

Method  definition has a very limited scope. Because talk or type of spontaneous creative output lost from the curriculum, students often fail to speak or even write a letter in the target language. An important quote illustrates the effect of this method comes from Bahlsen, who was a student Plotz, the main proponent of this method in the 19th century. In a commentary about writing letters or talking he said he would be overcome by "real jungle of paragraphs, and impenetrable clump of grammatical rules."
According to Richards and Rodgers, grammar-translation has been rejected as a legitimate method of language teaching by modern scholars:

Grammar-translation method is the standard way the language is taught in schools from the 17th to the 19th century. Although the reform efforts of Roger Ascham, Montaigne, Comenius and John Locke, there are other methods that gained any significant popularity over the years.
Then, the theory of such Vietor, Passy, ​​Berlitz, and Jespersen started talking about what kind of new foreign language teaching is needed, shedding light on what the grammar translation is missing. They supported teaching language, not about the language, and taught in the target language, emphasizing speech and text. Through grammar translation, students do not have an active role in the classroom, often correcting their own work, and strictly follow the textbook.
Grammar-translation method is still used today in the form of hybrids in various countries, including many parts of India.

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